Energean set for seismic survey at Ionian Sea’s block 2

A consortium comprising Energean and Helleniq Energy, formerly Hellenic Petroleum, is set to begin a seismic survey at the Ionian Sea’s block 2, adjacent to Italian territory in the Adriatic Sea, reliable sources have informed energypress.

Norwegian company PGS will collect 3D data covering an area of 2,000 square kilometers with its Ramform Hyperion seismic vessel, following orders by Energean, the operator, the sources added.

The Hellenic Navy has issued a Navtex, offering navigational and meteorological warnings and forecasts, for the seismic survey, to be conducted a long way off the coast, by the sea border shared with Italy.

The Energean – Helleniq Energy consortium has decided to conduct this offshore survey at block 2 in the Ionian Sea following a government decision last spring to accelerate Greece’s exploration plan for the identification of potential natural gas deposits. The 3D seismic data to be acquired will replace existing 2D data.

The upcoming effort promises to be the sixth seismic survey to be conducted in Greece over the past seven years following surveys at Prinos in 2015, the Gulf of Patras in 2016, Ioannina in 2018-2019, and at blocks in the Ionian Sea and Gulf of Kyparissia-northwest Peloponnese last spring.


Crete’s Hydrocarbon Potential to be Unveiled by the End of 2023⏐Upstream Development Programme in Full Swing⏐HEREMA’s Role in the Advancement of Offshore Windfarms

Greece’s upstream exploration programme offshore Crete is proceeding without delays, with a first assessment of the two concessions’ natural gas potential expected by the end of 2023. This was the message delivered by the CEO of the Hellenic Hydrocarbons and Energy Resources Management Company (HEREMA), Aris Stefatos, during a press conference held alongside the company’s Chairman Rikard Scoufias. 

Following the withdrawal of TotalEnergies earlier this year from the blocks dubbed “West of Crete” and “Southwest of Crete”, U.S. energy giant ExxonMobil significantly upped its stake in both concessions, raising this from 40% to 70% for E&P activities, while also assuming the operatorship. Likewise, Greece-based Hellenic Petroleum increased its participation in both areas from 20% to 30%.

ExxonMobil has prepared an upgraded work programme for the first phase of upstream exploration activities – anticipating faster and higher quality results – with delivery expected within a 2-year period instead of the 3 years companies have at their disposal for said exploration stage.

According to Stefatos, any delays in the Cretan concessions can be attributed to the fact that the previous operator did not complete the minimum work programme within the stipulated three-year term. He added that HEREMA’s exploration program is well underway, in accordance with the company’s underlying strategy “Hydrocarbons 2.0”, underpinned by three pillars:

  • Accelerating the development of Greece’s upstream sector with a particular focus on natural gas.
  • Expanding the scope of HEREMA to new energy technologies that can support Greece’s country’s energy transition.
  • Strengthening governance and ensuring HEREMA has the capacity and resources to meet all aspects of its mandate.

Regarding the first pillar, in February 2022 the leadership of HEREMA launched an ambitious investor outreach programme targeting energy majors.  The company’s management noted that the results so far have being particularly encouraging.

Discussions are ongoing with companies that have expressed an interest in entering the Greek upstream sector, with priority being placed on concessions where there is a single investor. While Mr. Stefatos confirmed that another licensing round is not off the table, he stressed the importance of drawing in investors to pre-existing concessions.

HEREMA is also set to play a key role in the development of offshore wind parks in Greek seas, in accordance with its legally expanded work scope, leveraging upon the company’s wealth of expertise in offshore operations. It’s important to underline that offshore oil and gas installations boast strong similarities to the platforms used in offshore wind installations. To this end, the company is being strengthened with specialized technical personnel and the relevant logistical infrastructure to enable it to deliver upon its expanded remit.

HEREMA has been carrying out one-to-one discussions with interested parties, including potential domestic and foreign investors, in an effort to understand their concerns and priorities – deemed key for the development of Greece’s newly-established offshore wind sector. Last but not least, HEREMA recently inked a memorandum of cooperation with the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR) focused on technical and environmental synergies.

Within the scope of new energy technologies, HEREMA’s expanded work scope additionally includes the licensing of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and underground gas storage (UGS) projects in Greece. Such projects could focus on the storage of natural gas and hydrogen in the future.  

Imminent key challenges 

While assessing key challenges moving forward, HEREMA’s Board of Directors underlined the importance of maintaining the momentum built during the last 12 months, while ensuring the company is provided with the necessary administrative and financial resources. Strengthening HEREMA’s capacity and resources is a primary challenge and will become even more critical as the company assumes its broader remit including natural gas storage, CO2 and greenhouse gas management, and supporting the offshore wind sector. It is noted that draft legislation for the modernization of HEREMA has been ready for adoption since January 2021 and will contribute to the creation of a more modern and efficient administrative framework.

More specifically, the board concludes “This is an important factor in maintaining investor confidence, but most importantly it serves to build an organisation with the staff, resources, and expertise required to manage a Greek “Hydrocarbons 2.0” programme that should only be initiated once the financial and human resources are in place to monitor and enforce the strictest standards for environmental protection and socio-economic impact management.” 

ELPE decision on Cretan offshore blocks within month or two

Hellenic Petroleum (ELPE) will finalize decisions on hydrocarbon exploration at licenses held for two offshore Cretan blocks, west and southwest of the island, within the next month or two, chief executive Andreas Siamisiis has told an annual shareholders’ meeting.

There has been confusion as to what the future holds for these offshore Cretan blocks following the recent withdrawal from their related consortium by Total, which held a 40 percent stake, along with US oil and gas multinational ExxonMobil, ELPE holding the other 20 percent.

Siamisiis, responding to questions on Total’s withdrawal from the Cretan venture, noted that participants were currently involved in talks, adding that a development is expected within the next month or two, without elaborating further.

Just weeks ago, Aris Stefatos, managing director at EDEY, the Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company, told state broadcaster ERT that Total’s withdrawal has prompted the need for another investor, suggesting a replacement is being sought for the Cretan offshore consortium.

Recent reports have indicated that ExxonMobil could also be on the way out from the consortium, which would further increase the need for a major investor.

Siamisiis, during the annual shareholders’ meeting, reiterated ELPE’s commitment for further seismic studies at both offshore Cretan blocks in an effort to determine their hydrocarbon prospects, even if ExxonMobil also withdraws from the consortium.




ExxonMobil, like Total, seems disinterested in Cretan blocks

American multinational oil and gas corporation ExxonMobil appears likely to follow the way of France’s TotalEnergies towards a possible withdrawal from two offshore blocks, west and southwest of Crete. The two companies each hold 40 percent stakes in these offshore licenses, Greece’s ELPE maintaining the other 20 percent.

Indications of a reduction in interest by the two corporations run contrary to  growing interest expressed by Greek officials for domestic exploration as a result of the EU’s decision to drastically reduce Europe’s reliance on Russian natural gas.

EDEY, the Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company, recently forwarded letters to these upstream companies, informing them of the Greek government’s intentions for a renewed, more ambitious hydrocarbon strategy.

EDEY officials declined to comment on the retreats by ExxonMobil and TotalEnergies but noted that a new round of talks for upstream investments is beginning. Other corporations are interested in Greece’s upstream sector, EDEY officials informed.

EDEY is determined to keep a tight schedule and secure seismic surveys at the two Cretan offshore areas this coming autumn and in spring, 2023.

EDEY studying Norwegian upstream diversification

EDEY, the Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company, is exploring, with the expertise and support of Norwegian scientists, the prospect of incorporating carbon capture and storage (CCS) and offshore wind farms into its range of activities, taking Norway as an example.

The effort is being conducted with financial support from the European Economic Area (EEA) grants mechanism, established by Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein with the aim, amongst other matters, of strengthening bilateral ties with 15 European countries, including Greece.

Norway, which has accumulated years of expertise through hydrocarbon extraction, has successfully combined its upstream sector with new energy fields such as CCS and offshore wind farms.

According to EDEY chief executive Aristofanis Stefatos, the objective is to make note of the most positive aspects of these Norwegian synergies to help Greece develop important projects needed for the energy transition, without excluding exploration of natural gas deposits in Greek seas should market conditions become appropriate.

The EDEY study with Norwegian experts, titled “Review of the Transformation of the Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry during the Energy Transition and its application in Greece”, began last April and has been included in the EEA Grants program covering 2014 to 2021.



Energean granted 30-month extension for Ioaninna field

EDEY, the Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company, has granted upstream company Energean a second extension, for two-and-half years, from April 3, to conduct exploration work at its onshore Ioaninna field in Greece’s northwest.

Energean had previously been given a six-month extension beyond April 3, which expired yesterday.

The upstream company, listed on the London and Tel Aviv bourses, requested further exploration time for its Ioaninna field as a result of bureaucratic delays linked to the withdrawal of former field project partner Repsol, which was the operator with a 60 percent stake, sources informed.

The extension highlights Energean’s determination to not abandon its licenses and keep exploring for possible hydrocarbon deposits, despite the unfavorable conditions and prospects for fossil fuels, company sources told energypress.


Halliburton also joins Energean for Israel drilling, beginning 1Q in ‘22

Two of the world’s biggest companies, in their respective fields, will participate in Energean’s new drilling program for Israel, scheduled to begin in the first quarter of 2022, an effort through which the company hopes to discover hydrocarbons the equivalent of one billion barrels of oil, primarily as natural gas.

American multinational Halliburton, one of the world’s biggest oil field service companies, has announced an agreement with Energean for three to five drilling procedures offshore Israel, following four drilling efforts completed in 2019 on behalf of Energean in the area, which led to the discovery of the Karish North gas field, set to begin production in 2023, one year after production at Karish, the main field.

Energean has already selected another major global player, Stena Drilling, for the supply of drilling equipment.

According to official announcements, confirmed drilling procedures to be completed in 2022 are: 1) Karish North, containing 33 billion cubic meters of natural gas and 31 billion barrels of certified liquid hydrocarbon (2P) stocks, with first gas production set for the second half of 2023; 2) Karish Main-04, to seek additional hydrocarbon quantities at the main Karish field, estimated at an equivalent of 166 million barrels of oil; 3) at Block 12, for an exploratory drill dubbed Athena, between the Karish and Tanin fields, aiming for 20 billion cubic meters of natural gas and a further 4 million barrels of liquid hydrocarbons.


ELPE leaves onshore licenses, upstream stagnancy deepening

Hellenic Petroleum (ELPE) has announced a decision to withdraw from two onshore licenses, Arta-Preveza, in Greece’s northwest, and Northwest Peloponnese, adding to a series of recent negative developments for the country’s hydrocarbon aspirations, increasingly stagnant.

The ELPE decision is a result of the country’s ongoing energy transition towards a low-emissions economy, reflecting the upstream industry’s global contraction.

ELPE is striving for a 30 percent carbon emissions reduction by 2030 and becoming carbon-neutral by the end of the decade.

Like most upstream companies around the world, ELPE is turning its business interests to the RES sector and repositioning to reduce its exposure to CO2 emissions.

The ELPE decision to surrender its two onshore block licenses follows a recent decision by Spain’s Repsol, with Energean, to return to the Greek State exploration and production rights to an Etoloakarnania block, in the country’s northwest.

Repsol, seeking to limit its upstream exposure, has decided to withdraw from its hydrocarbon interests in Greece, as well as a further 13 countries of 28 in which the company is active.

Repsol has also left its interests in an Ioannina onshore block, in the northwest, leaving Energean alone in this venture, the country’s sole onshore license. Repsol also withdrew from its offshore Ionian Sea block, a 50-50 venture with ELPE.


New deadline extensions granted for work at hydrocarbon blocks

The higher risk entailed in hydrocarbon exploration as a result of the coronavirus pandemic and a mass turn, including by petroleum companies, to green-energy activities are factors forcing investors with licenses to Greek blocks to delay their development plans.

Energean Oil & Gas and Hellenic Petroleum (ELPE) have both requested and been granted deadline extensions for preliminary exploration work at two blocks to which they hold licenses that were approved by Greek authorities in 2017 and 2018, respectively.

These extensions concern offshore Block 2 in the Ionian Sea – for which Energean is the operator with a 75 percent stake following Total’s withdrawal in February, 2020, and ELPE the minority partner with a 25 percent stake – and an onshore block in the northwest Peloponnese for which ELPE is the sole participant.

Energean requested and was granted a 24-month extension, until March 15, 2023, by EDEY, the Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company, for preliminary work at Block 2 in the Ionian Sea.

EDEY also granted ELPE an extension, though shorter – 6 months, to September 15, 2021 – for the completion of preliminary work at its northwest Peloponnese license. ELPE originally sought a 20-month extension until March 15, 2022.

These extensions follow a decision, early this year, by Repsol and Energean to return to the Greek State their license to an onshore block at Etoloakarnania, northwestern Greece.

Also earlier this year, EDEY granted a third extension to ELPE and Edison E&P (now Energean, following its acquisition of the Italian company’s local hydrocarbon portfolio) for initial drilling at a Gulf of Patras block in the country’s west, which has been extended to January, 2023.

Total, ExxonMobil, ELPE delay Crete surveys for next winter

A decision by the three-member consortium comprising Total, ExxonMobil and Hellenic Petroleum (ELPE) to conduct seismic surveys at two offshore blocks south and west of Crete in the winter of 2021-2022, instead of this winter, highlights the upstream market’s negative climate, both in Greece and internationally.

Upstream players, drastically cutting down on investments costs amid the crisis, have cancelled scores of investment plans, especially those concerning the development of new fields.

Based on the terms of its contract, the Total-ExxonMobil-ELPE consortium also had the opportunity to conduct seismic surveys at its Cretan offshore blocks this winter.

It should be pointed out that the consortium has yet to receive environmental approval for these blocks. Nor have these slots been included in an annual workplan delivered by EDEY, the Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company.

Even so, Total, ExxonMobil and ELPE do not appear prepared, under the current conditions, to increase their investment risk in the region.

Repsol-Energean abandon rights for Etoloakarnania block

A consortium comprised of Spanish petroleum group Repsol and Energean Oil & Gas has surrendered its hydrocarbon exploitation and production rights for on onshore license in the Etoloakarnania area, northwestern Greece, the partners informed EDEY, the Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company, last Friday, sources have revealed.

The partners attributed this decision to the sharp drop in oil prices that has made upstream investments unfeasible, as well as their environmental footprint efforts.

Repsol is also preparing to withdraw its interests from an offshore block in the Ionian Sea through a license it shares with Hellenic Petroleum (ELPE).

In addition, the Spanish group is reconsidering its interests in a license for an onshore block in Ioaninna, also in Greece’s northwest, sources informed. Repsol holds a 60 percent stake in this license, the other 40 percent belonging to Energean Oil & Gas. The partners face an April deadline for an investment decision concerning initial drilling.

Three months earlier, Repsol, through a strategic business plan covering 2021 to 2025, announced exploration and production investment cuts worth 700 million dollars, annually. The company plans to focus its activities in 14 countries, not including Greece.

Spain’s Repsol on verge of exiting Greek upstream market

Spanish petroleum firm Repsol, a member of consortiums holding licenses to three fields in Greece, is on the verge of leaving the country’s upstream market as a part of a wider strategic adjustment prompted by the oil crisis and the pandemic, developments that have impacted exploration plans, as well as a company plan to reduce its environmental footprint, sources have informed.

The upstream industry has been hit hard by the pandemic, which has driven down prices and demand. The EU’s climate-change policies are another key factor behind Repsol’s decision.

Repsol is believed to have decided to significantly reduce the number of countries in which it is currently present for hydrocarbon exploration and production, the intention being to limit operations to the more lucrative of fields.

All three fields in Repsol’s Greek portfolio are still at preliminary research stages and do not offer any production assurances, meaning they will most probably be among the first to be scrapped by the company from its list of projects.

Respol formed a partnership with Hellenic Petroleum (ELPE) for offshore exploration in the Ionian Sea. Repsol is the operator in this arrangement. A license secured by the two partners for this region in 2018 was approved in Greek Parliament a year later.

Also, in 2017, Repsol agreed to enter a partnership with Energean Oil & Gas, acquiring 60 percent stakes, and the operator’s role, for onshore blocks in Ioannina and Etoloakarnania, northwestern Greece.

Repsol maintains interests in over 40 countries, producing approximately 700,000 barrels per day.

Upstream projects awaiting Greek State reassurances

Local and foreign upstream companies holding exploration and production licenses for hydrocarbon reserves on Greek territory, offshore and onshore, are awaiting Greek State reassurances for their ventures following a cabinet reshuffle that has resulted in a change of leadership at the energy ministry, bringing in Kostas Skrekas in place of Costis Hatzidakis.

Oil companies, delaying investment plans as a result of the pandemic and lower oil prices, are waiting for a vote of confidence from the Greek State, market sources insist.

The fall in oil prices, currently at levels of about 50 dollar a barrel, may have halted upstream investments internationally, but, nevertheless, this is a good time for resolving bureaucratic obstacles and preparing local communities for prospective exploration efforts that promise to contribute to job creation and economic recovery.

Four upstream investment plans are currently either at an advanced stage in terms of prospective drilling or at preliminary exploration stages.

Of all four plans, Energean’s license for Katakolo, western Greece, is at the most mature stage. Public consultation on an environmental impact study concerning this project’s drilling requirements was completed in December, 2019. The regional authority for western Greece has offered its approval. Even so, a year later, the energy ministry has yet to deliver its decision on the environmental study.

A license for the Gulf of Patras field, held by Hellenic Petroleum (ELPE) and Edison, is also at a mature stage. The partners requested, and were granted, an extension for the start of drilling at this field. EDEY, the Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company, granted the pair a further 15 months, until January 23, 2023, to facilitate their preparations.

Sources have attributed this additional time to a lack of appropriate regional port facilities, needed to facilitate the installation of equipment required for drilling. ELPE and Edison had previously been given another extension, until October, 2021.

On another front, a partnership comprising Repsol and Energean has until April to start a second stage of exploration activities at its Ioannina block in northwestern Greece. Local community approval is needed. The government needs to take action on the issue.

A fourth upstream project carrying geopolitical weight concerns licenses held by a consortium made up of Total, ExxonMobil and ELPE for offshore fields west and southwest of Crete. Though company representatives recently informed Crete’s regional authorities that seismic surveys are planned to begin towards spring, there have been no further updates or any signs of action.

Africa Upstream, LNG & Gas Summit taking place tomorrow

Following the success of the online Oil & Gas Summit, hundreds of EPs and service providers are gathering to listen to Africa’s biggest E&P opportunities, expand their partnerships and prospects at the Africa Upstream, Gas & LNG Summit, taking place tomorrow.

Speakers include: Ritu Sahajwalla, Managing Director, Greenville LNG; Ian Simm, Principal Advisor, IGM Energy; Keith Hill, President & CEO, Africa Oil corp; Harriet Okwi, Consultant & Founder, Okwi & Partners; Immanuel Mulunga, Managing Director, NAMCOR; Martin Bawden, Business Development Manager, Zebra Data Sciences; Gbemi Otudeko, Principal, Actis; Matt Tyrrell, Chief Geologist, TROIS Geoconsulting; Philippe Herve, VP Energy, SparkCognition; Adeleye Falade, General Manager Production, Nigeria LNG; Brian Marcus, Head, Capital Management, Seplat Petroleum Development Company Plc; Tabrez Khan, Director, EMEIA Oil & Gas Transactions, Ernst & Young; Mike Lakin, Founder and Owner, Envoi, Allan Mugisha, Project Manager, Springfield E&P; Gil Holzman, President & CEO, Eco Atlantic Oil & Gas; Chryssa Tsouraki, Co-CEO, IN-VR; Gawie Kanjemba, Lawyer and Energy Specialist; Scott Macmillan, Managing Director, Invictus Energy; Gregory Germani, Managing Director, West African Gas Pipeline Company; Kadijah Amoah, Country Director, Aker Energy; Eyas Alhomouz, CEO, Petromal; Duncan Rushworth, VP Business Developmemt, Svenska Petroleum; Rogers Beall, Executive Chairman, Africa Fortesa Corporation; Oumarou Maidagi . D, Head of Exploration & Production, Ministry of Hydrocarbons; Peter Dekker, Chief Geophysicist, PetroSA; Tom Perkins, Director, Stellar Energy Advisors Limited; Yann Yangari, Head of New Business, Strategy and Intelligence, Gabon Oil; Monica Chamussa, Exploration Manager, ENH; David Boggs, Managing Director, Energy Maritime Associates Pte Ltd; Jorg Kohnert, Managing Director, Jagal; Amina Benkhadra, General Director, National Office of Hydrocarbons and Mines, ONHYM; Jeremy Asher, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Tower Resources plc; and Khaled AbuBakr, Executive Chairman and Co-founder, TAQA Arabia.



Repsol given 6-month extension for Ioannina license preliminary work

A pandemic-related extension request made by Spain’s Repsol for an additional six-month period to complete preliminary research concerning a license in Ioannina, northwestern Greece, has been granted by EDEY, Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company, in a decision reached last week that resets the deadline for April 2, 2021.

Repsol, operator of a consortium formed with Energean Oil & Gas for the Ioannina license, had lodged its extension request late in August.

Repsol’s preliminary research work at the Ioannina license was initially expected to be completed by early October ahead of a decision on whether it would proceed with drilling.

The pandemic has severely impacted the upstream industry worldwide. Multinationals engaged in hydrocarbon research and production activities have severely limited their investment plans as a result of the pandemic’s impact on petroleum markets.

A rebound for the upstream sector appears highly unlikely any time soon given the rising second wave of coronavirus cases.

The EDEY extension will enable Repsol to conduct a more thorough analysis of seismic data collected and enable the company to hold on for the prospect of improved upstream industry conditions.

EDEY justified its extension by noting it will help the investors complete their assessment of technical work conducted during the preliminary stage.



Tension rises as Turkish vessel enters Greek continental shelf

The situation concerning the Turkish research vessel Oruc Reis, which entered the easternmost point of the Greek continental shelf yesterday, is unchanged today, the Athens-Macedonian News Agency has reported.

Oruc Reis is accompanied by Turkish naval units, while the situation is being monitored by the Greek Armed Forces, the Greek news agency has reported.

Tension has re-escalated in the east Mediterranean since yesterday afternoon, with Turkey disputing, in practice, the Greek-Egyptian EEZ agreement through the presence and maneuvering of its Oruc Reis research vessel and Turkish warships.

Turkish survey systems are believed to be ready for application, but, according to Greek estimates, research work cannot proceed as a result of noise being generated by nearby ships, both Greek and Turkish.

Greek navy units, lined up opposite the Turkish ships, are seeking to prompt a Turkish withdrawal. The Greek Air Force and Army are also on standby.

Posting on Twitter, Cagatay Erciyes, a senior Turkish Foreign Ministry official, noted that Greece has created problems because of a 10-square-kilometer Greek island named Kastellorizo, which lies 2 kilometers away from the Turkish mainland and 580 kilometers from the Greek mainland.

“Greece is claiming 40,000 km2 of maritime jurisdiction area due to this tiny island and attempting to stop the Oruc Reis and block Turkey in the eastern Mediterranean.

“This maximalist claim is not compatible with international law. It is against the principle of equality. Yet Greece is asking the EU and US to support this claim and put pressure on Turkey to cease its legitimate offshore activities. This is not acceptable and reasonable,” he said.

Cyprus has responded by issuing a Navtex of its own, effective from today until August 23, through which it notifies that the Turkish research vessel Oruc Reis and accompanying vessels are conducting illegal operations within Cyprus’ EEZ.

Greece, Egypt sign EEZ agreement, Turkey reacts

A Greek-Egyptian agreement signed yesterday to designate an exclusive economic zone in the eastern Mediterranean between the two countries, an area containing promising oil and gas reserves, “confirms and secures the continental shelf and EEZ rights and influence of our islands,” declared Greek Foreign Minister Nikos Dendias.

The agreement, co-signed by Dendias with Egyptian counterpart Sameh Shoukry in Cairo, takes Greek-Egyptian relations to a new level of closer ties, Dendias noted.

“The agreement with Egypt is within the framework of international law, respects all concepts of international law and the law of the sea and good neighbourly relations, and contributes to security and stability in the region,” Dendias said.

The agreement between Greece and Egypt is the complete opposite of an illegal, invalid and legally groundless memorandum of understanding between Turkey and Libya, now nullified, he pointed out.

Greece is determined to establish EEZ agreements with all other neighboring countries, always within the framework of international law and the law of the sea, Dendias noted, citing yesterday’s Greek-Egyptian agreement and an agreement in June with Italy.

The Greek agreement with Italy, on maritime boundaries that established an EEZ, resolved longstanding issues over fishing rights in the Ionian Sea.

Turkey responded to yesterday’s Greek-Egyptian agreement by notifying it has scheduled a live-fire military exercise at a sea area between the Greek islands Rhodes and Kastelorizo for August 10 and 11.

Prinos rescue plan may offer Greek State stake in Energean Oil & Gas SA

A government rescue plan for Prinos, Greece’s only producing oil field, in the country’s offshore north, will offer the Greek State a small stake in Energean Oil & Gas, the field’s operator, and provide state guarantees for 75 million euros in financing needed by the company in 2020 and 2021 for investments included in its business plan, according to well informed sources.

The government is believed to be just days away from announcing its finalized rescue plan for Energean’s Prinos field, hit hard by the pandemic and lower international oil prices, factors that have impacted the global upstream industry.

Greek government officials are currently discussing the Prinos rescue plan with the European Commission, whose approval will be required. Though alterations to the aforementioned solution cannot be ruled out, good news on the rescue plan appears imminent.

Energean Oil & Gas recently published a business plan that lists interventions needed for Prinos’ rescue as well as the field’s sustainability over the next 15 years. The plan’s measures include actions to reduce emissions and drastically reduce the company’s environmental footprint.

Energean has invested approximately 460 million euros at Prinos during the company’s 13 years of operations at the field, including 50 million euros between last September and May, to avoid the closure of offshore and related onshore facilities. Some 270 jobs have been protected.

Prinos field rescue effort now at the finance ministry

A government effort to rescue offshore Prinos, Greece’s only producing field, in the north, is now in the hands of the finance ministry following preceding work at the energy ministry, sources have informed.

The field, like the wider upstream industry, has been impacted by the pandemic and plunge in oil prices.

Deputy finance minister Theodoros Skylakakis is now handling the Prinos rescue case following the transfer of a related file from the energy ministry.

According to the sources, three scenarios are being considered. A financing plan through a loan with Greek State guarantees appears to be the top priority. A second option entails the utilization of an alternate form of state aid. The other consideration involves the Greek State’s equity participation in the Prinos field’s license holder, Energean Oil & Gas.

The European Commission will need to offer its approval to any of these options as they all represent forms of state aid.

Energy ministry sources have avoided offering details but are confident a solution is in the making.

Turkey tensions will not be escalated, ‘aim achieved’

Turkey will not continue intensifying its provocations in the East Mediterranean as the neighboring country has already achieved its main goal, a State Department declaration noting that the country is performing hydrocarbon exploration activities in disputed territory, Dr Konstantinos Nikolaou, a seasoned petroleum geologist and energy economist, supports.

Turkey’s provocations over the past few days – the country sent a seismic survey vessel into Greek EEZ waters for further exploration work following such initiatives in the past – represent part of a carefully planned strategy whose aim is to end Turkey’s East Mediterranean isolation of recent years and put the country back in the frame of the region’s hydrocarbon developments, experts believe.

Turkey has refused to sign the UN’s International Law of the Sea treaty, strongly disagreeing with Article 121, giving EEZ and continental shelf rights to island areas.

Instead, the country has followed its own rules, adjusting them as it pleases, to avoid giving any rights to island areas.

Besides seeking to reinforce the country’s position that rejects any EEZ rights for islands, the latest Turkish moves also aim to cancel EEZ agreements signed by Cyprus with Egypt, Israel and Lebanon.

Turkey has unsuccessfully sought to sign an EEZ agreement with Egypt, during Muslim Brotherhood times.

Dr. Nikolaou predicts that there will be no Turkish movement south of Crete as the transfer of an area by Libya, Turkey’s regional partner, would be required. The area of Benghazi is not controlled by Fayez al-Sarraj, the head of Libya’s UN-recognized government, but by renegade commander Khalifa Haftar.

Ultimately, the Turkish strategy in the wider region is aiming for co-exploitation of hydrocarbon deposits that may be discovered.

Ministry OKs environmental study for blocks south of Crete

Energy minister Costis Hatzidakis has approved a strategic environmental impact study concerning an offshore area south of Crete in preparation for tenders to offer exploration and production licenses for two blocks covering most of the island’s width.

Giannis Basias, the former head official at EDEY, the Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company, went ahead with the strategic environmental impact study last August to clear the way for government authorities to stage tenders for licenses and also spare  winning bidders of needing to wait for pending issues to be resolved before they can begin their exploration efforts.

In addition, it is believed EDEY took swift action for the environmental impact study covering the offshore area south of Crete in response to interest expressed by oil majors.

The two offshore blocks south of Crete measure a total of 33,933 square kilometers and cover all four prefectures spread across the island.

These vacant blocks are situated next to two blocks southwest and west of Crete that have already been licensed out to a three-member consortium headed by Total with ExxonMobil and Hellenic Petroleum as partners.

The eastern flank of these two blocks is intruded by a corridor defined in a recent Turkish-Libyan maritime deal.

The Greek energy ministry’s approval of the strategic environmental impact study for south of Crete is not linked to Turkey’s heightened provocations in the Aegean Sea, ministry officials told energypress.

The environmental study’s approval means this offshore area is now set for tenders and also sends out a signal of readiness to the international upstream industry, the ministry officials explained.

Just days ago, the newly appointed EDEY administration and the energy ministry’s secretary-general Alexandra Sdoukou met with officials of Total, operator of the consortium holding the two licenses southwest and west of Crete. Seismic surveys for these blocks will be completed by March next year, the Total officials appear to have promised.

New leadership at hydrocarbon management company EDEY

The Greek Hydrocarbon Management Company (EDEY), an independent company owned by the Hellenic Republic that oversees and manages the nation’s oil & gas exploration & production, investor relations and a growing portfolio of international energy infrastructure projects, has announced the appointment of a new chairman of the board of directors and a new chief executive. 

The appointments by Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis, follow the nomination by Greece’s energy minister Costis Hatzidakis and endorsement by the Special Permanent Committee on Institutions and Transparency of the Hellenic Parliament.

In a statement, the Minister of Environment and Energy, Costis Hatzidakis, noted that the appointments “mark a new chapter for the company, which now has an expanded role following the absorption of a number of International trans-boundary gas pipeline projects, such as the Greek-Bulgarian (IGB) pipeline, IGI Poseidon and East Med – projects supported by inter-governmental agreements between several countries in the Mediterranean region that will strengthen European security of supply as well as Greece’s role as a protagonist nexus in some of the region’s most important strategic developments.” 

The newly appointed chairman, Rikard Scoufias, who joins the company in a non-executive capacity from a distinguished energy and extractives career in Europe, the Americas, Asia and Africa, commented: “This is an important moment in the history of EDEY. Strong corporate governance, especially environmental and social governance (ESG), is in unprecedented focus, nowhere more so than the energy and extractive sectors. It is a privilege to be asked to lead such an eminent board of directors, with distinguished careers from Greece, Norway, the Netherlands, Cyprus, Denmark and the United Kingdom, and we all look forward to work closely with the executive team and to guide the company into this new chapter of growth and continued success.”  

Aristofanis Stefatos, EDEY’s newly appointed CEO, who returns to Greece following a successful executive career in Norway’s oil and gas industry, where he served as COO, CEO and in non-executive roles noted: “Τhe opportunities that hydrocarbon exploration and production offer Greece are significant. By securing these opportunities today, we position the country for the widest possible strategic choices for the future – including the delivery of Greece’s committed plans for alternative energies and long-term decarbonization. We will achieve this ensuring that EDEY is widely recognized as an efficient, transparent and dedicated partner to investors and all stakeholders, whilst at the same time holding those partners to the highest international environmental and social standards.” 

International investors link up for Timor-Leste Oil & Gas summit

The ​Timor-Leste (East Timor) Oil & Gas Online Summit​, organised by IN-VR and under the endorsement of ANPM, Timor-Leste’s petroleum and minerals authority, took place on July 9, bringing together international investors together with the government, IOCs and key service providers.

The summit was sponsored by SundaGas​, ​Pacific Towing​, ​Vieira De Almeida​, ​TIMOR GAP​, ​CGG​, ​GLJ and ​Clifford Chance​.

H.E. Dr. Victor da Conceicao Soares, Minister of Petroleum and Minerals opened the summit welcoming investors and operators. He was followed by Dino da Silva, President of ANPM, who gave an overview of Timor-Leste’s 2nd Licensing Round, and Timor-Leste’s onshore and offshore opportunities.

“A very friendly tax system with relatively low tax rates [is offered] when compared with the average that we see not only in South East Asia, but in the world , when compared not only with the rest of South-East Asia, but even worldwide. It is clearly one of the most competitive countries in the world for the industry,” said ​Joao Afonso Fialho​, Partner and Head of Oil & Gas, VdA in his presentation on Timor-Leste’s investment environment.

“We are very nicely positioned in regards to infrastructure and transportation of gas. At the moment we are looking into having appraisal wells drilled in 2022,” noted Colin Murray, VP of Technical, Sundagas when discussing the Chuditch gas discovery and SundaGas’ progress within only one year of signing a PSC with Timor-Leste.”

“We look forward to establishing a similar relationship with Timor-Leste. In fact, it’s essential to the success of any marine business and essential to us. A strong relationship with the government is a critical component to our investments,” said ​Neil Papenfus​, General Manager of Pacific Towing, on comparing the company’s success in Papua New Guinea and investing in Timor-Leste.

“Timor-Leste has chosen the best solution, making access to its data free for interested investors, a model that works well for frontier countries,” commented Martin Bawden, Business Development Manager of Zebra Data, when asked about ANPM’s usage of their Virtual Data Room service.

ANPM, IOCs and investors renewed their meeting for the ​2nd Timor-Leste Oil & Gas Summit​ in Dili, Timor-Leste in 2021.

Turkish-Libyan MoU ‘ignores’ International Law of the Sea

A Turkish-Libyan Memorandum of Understanding emphatically ignores article 121 of the International Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982), which recognizes Exclusive Economic Zone and continental shelf rights for island areas, and overlooks the existence of Crete, Karpathos, Kasos, Rhodes and Kastellorizo to carve out approximately 39,000 square kilometers of Greek territory south of Crete for Libya, petroleum geologist and energy economist Dr. Konstantinos Nikolaou, a former member of the board at the Cyprus Hydrocarbons Company, has pointed out in an analysis, spelling out the dangers of Turkey’s provocative behavior in the region.

Turkey misappropriates the continental shelf and EEZ associated with Crete, Karpathos, Kasos, Rhodes and Kastellorizo in the east Mediterranean, he noted on the MoU, submitted by Turkey to the UN in an effort to make gains at Greece’s expense.

Hydrocarbon licenses for plots south and southwest of Crete that have been awarded by the Greek State to Total, ExxonMobil and ELPE (Hellenic Petroleum) and published in the Official Journal of the European Union, set a precedent that backs the positions of Greece, whose division of the area is based on International Law of the Sea guidelines, Nikolaou highlighted.

Turkey is using its state-run petroleum corporation TPAO as a tool to exercise foreign policy for territorial gains, Nikolaou added.

Natural gas discoveries in the east Mediterranean serve as a major driving force behind the actions of Turkey, whose energy sector is import-dependent, he pointed out.

Oil drilling plans on hold, forced by price collapse, pandemic

Preliminary hydrocarbon exploration work planned by oil companies at licenses in the Ionian Sea and south of Crete is being postponed for an indefinite period that could last as much as a year, possibly more.

Upstream players are revising plans as a result of the collapse in oil prices and the coronavirus pandemic, a double setback for the sector.

Worse still, investment conditions for the Ionian Sea and Crete areas are made even more challenging by the fact that neither has yet to reveal sustainable fields.

In addition, both Greek zones are deep-sea areas of depths ranging from 2,500 to 3,000 meters, making exploration a high-cost venture.

Global oil majors are reducing investments and expenses by the billions in response to the unfavorable market conditions that have emerged over the past couple of months.

Fields with proven reserves have not been spared, which pushes untested fields such as those in Greece even further down the priority list.

The resumption of drilling ventures still at preliminary stages is not likely until oil prices rebound, energy minister Costis Hatzidakis noted in an interview with Greek daily To Ethnos.

It is a similar picture for Cyprus. The Eni-Total consortium yesterday announced it is postponing oil drilling activities in Cyprus’ Exclusive Economic Zone until March or April next year.

Greek upstream investments suspended, oil crisis hits hard

The current oil crisis, prompted by a Saudi-Russian price war and lower demand amid the coronavirus pandemic, comes as the latest setback for the upstream sector. The oil price slide, during which prices have plummeted to levels as low as 25 dollars per barrel, had added to the strain already felt by investors as a result of excessive bureaucracy in the Greek market.

Upstream players, troubled by the overall uncertainty, are believed to have suspended their investment plans despite a mild market rebound over the past few days, lifting oil prices to levels between 33 and 34 dollars per barrel.

Energean Oil & Gas’ Katakolo license off western Peloponnese and the Gulf of Patras license, co-owned by Hellenic Petroleum (ELPE) and Energean, rank as Greece’s two most mature upstream projects.

An environmental study for the Katakolo license has not yet been approved by the energy ministry. Even if it had, Energean would not move ahead with the venture under the existing market conditions. Current oil price levels would simply not cover investment costs.

Just before Christmas, investors behind the Gulf of Patras license were given an 18-month extension to begin drilling at this project, taking the date to June, 2021. Regional port facilities had been deemed insufficient by the consortium. All activity for this investment has also been suspended, sources informed.

Energean to utilize measures for crisis-hit Prinos field

Energean Oil & Gas, whose offshore Prinos oil field in the country’s north has been heavily impacted by the coronavirus pandemic’s effects on the global economy, including record-low oil prices, intends to utilize relief measures offered by the Greek government for various sectors, including the upstream industry.

The government’s relief measures, introduced to help enterprises weather the financial impact of the unprecedented coronavirus crisis, promise respite in a variety of forms, including tax payment delays, VAT discounts as well as employee allowances covering suspended work contracts.

Energean, which has invested tens of millions of euros to keep upstream  activities alive in Greece, now needs to reduce its Prinos operating costs and keep production flowing. A disruption of production and resumption at a latter date is not technically feasible. Prinos is Greece’s only producing oil field.

The oil price plunge has made big impact on the Prinos field, an old high-cost venture whose production costs are estimated at 21.5 dollars per barrel.

This specific field produces heavy crude of higher refining demands. Subsequently, Energean sells the unit’s output to BP at price levels that are between 7 and 8 dollars lower per barrel compared to Brent prices.

Production at Prinos is declining. Output peaked at 4,000 barrels per day in 2018 but fell to 3,300 in 2019 and is projected to slide further in 2020, officials noted.

Energean has cut back on investments at Prinos by 80 million dollars.

International crude prices plunged from 66 dollars to less than 25 dollars per barrel in the first quarter. Prices have not fallen so low since 2003.


Energean Oil & Gas continues strong growth trajectory in 2019

Energean Oil and Gas, the oil and gas producer focused on the Mediterranean, has announced its audited full-year results for the year ended 31 December 2019 (“FY 2019”). Having grown its reserve base at 39% year-on-year, Energean is now at its next transition point as the company begins converting this into cash flows and production, de-risking investment case and moving closer to the medium-term goal of paying a sustainable dividend, the company noted in a statement.  

Mathios Rigas, Chief Executive Officer, Energean Oil & Gas commented:

“Energean continued its strong growth trajectory in 2019, becoming firmly established as a leading, FTSE 250 E&P independent. 

“The COVID-19 pandemic and OPEC+ price war have put us into uncertain times, but we are well-placed to weather the challenges. Once the Edison E&P transaction is completed, around 70% of our production will be sold under long-term gas sales agreements that insulate our future revenues against oil price volatility. Following completion of the Edison E&P transaction, we will continue to own and operate the majority of our asset base, and are well-funded for all of our projects. This will ensure that we can respond quickly and appropriately to the macro environment and take the right decisions to protect our business and our shareholders, as demonstrated by the $155 million cut to our 2020 capex guidance. The crisis finds Energean well prepared with full discretion on our non-Israeli capex programme and a very strong balance sheet further strengthened only recently by a further $175 million committed funding for our Karish project, demonstrating the strength of our banking relationships and the commitment of our lenders to the project. 

“In the coming weeks, you will see our FPSO hull sailaway from China to Singapore, a key milestone in the delivery of first gas from Karish, which is on track for 1H 2021. During 2019 we completed the drilling of the three development wells of Karish, confirmed excellent productivity rates from the wells and made a new discovery (Karish North) in Israel that we intend to develop in 2021. We continued to gain market share in Israel securing additional long-term gas contracts and bringing us closer to our target to maximise capacity utilisation of our FPSO. We expect the Edison E&P transaction to close during 2020, which, based on the agreed locked-box date of 1 January 2019, allows us to benefit from the robust results delivered by the business during 2019, including $152 million of Free Cash Flow from the assets to be acquired. This, combined with the receivables recovered in Egypt, exclusion of the Algerian assets from the transaction perimeter and our onward disposal of the North Sea assets to Neptune Energy, contributes to a low effective purchase price.  

“Fully committed to lead also on the ESG front, Energean became the first E&P company globally to commit to net zero emissions by 2050, and we have a firm plan to reduce carbon intensity by 70% over the next three years. 

“I look forward to continuing to deliver positive momentum and sustainable growth to maximise value for all of our stakeholders”.  


  • Karish was 72% physically complete at 31 December 2019 and remains on track to deliver first gas in 1H 2021.  Firm gas sales of 5.0 bcm/yr with a further 0.6 bcm/yr to be converted to a firm basis immediately on publication of a satisfactory Karish North CPR, expected at the end of March 2020.
  • Post-period end, two of the three Karish development wells successfully flowed during clean-up operations, confirming that each will be capable of delivering up to the design limit of 300 mmscf/d (c.3 bcm/yr). The third development well is currently in the clean-up phase and production performance is expected to be similar, confirming that the three wells will be able to produce to the 8 bcm/yr capacity of the FPSO.
  • Increased 2P reserves and 2C resources to 558 MMboe, representing a 39% year-on-year increase, before any contribution from the Edison E&P acquisition. Energean is at a transition point in its history, from which it will convert this growth in reserves to growth in production and cash flow.
  • 2019 average Working Interest production was 3.3 kbopd from the Prinos field. Cost of production was approximately $21.5 /bbl.
  • 2019 full year revenue  was $76 million. Adjusted EBITDAX was $36 million. Capital expenditure was $685 million.
  • Recognised a $71 million impairment charge on the Prinos area, reflecting a reduction in Energean’s oil price assumptions and a change in the Group’s Prinos field production forecast.
  • Energean retains significant liquidity. At 31 December 2019, Energean had cash and undrawn facilities of $834 million, excluding the undrawn $600 million acquisition bridge facility.
  • Became the first E&P company globally to commit to net zero emissions by 2050 and have a firm plan to reduce carbon intensity by 70% over the next three years.


Financial Summary 


FY 2019

FY 2018




Sales revenue



Cost of production ($/boe)



Operating profit / (loss)



Adjusted EBITDAX



Operating cash flow



Capital expenditure



Cash capital expenditure



Net debt (cash)



 Edison E&P Acquisition (subject to closing)

  • In July 2019, Energean agreed to acquire Edison E&P for $750 million of up-front consideration, adding immediate cash flows, EBITDAX and incremental growth opportunities. In October 2019, Energean agreed to sell Edison E&P’s UK and Norwegian subsidiaries to Neptune Energy for $250 million of up-front consideration.
  • Raised $265 million of equity and $600 million of bridge financing to fund the acquisition. The take-out of the bridge facility using a Reserve Based Lending (“RBL”) Facility of up to $525 million plus a bridge to disposal of up to $250 million for the UK and Norway Assets is progressing as expected.
  • Carve out of the Algerian assets from the transaction perimeter has been agreed in principle at an effective price of $155 million, based on an effective transaction date of 1 January 2019; the carve out remains subject to a signed, amended SPA.
  • Excluding Algeria, UK and Norwegian subsidiaries, Edison E&P delivered Free Cash Flow of $152 million during 2019.
  • Exclusive of Algeria and the UK and Norwegian subsidiaries, 2019 average Edison E&P working interest production was 56 kboe/d (64 kboe/d inclusive of these assets).
  • In January 2020, Edison E&P received the updated Environmental Impact Assessment (“EIA”) approval on the Cassiopea development, offshore Italy. The development is progressing as planned with first gas expected in early 2023. 


  • Closing of the Edison E&P acquisition and subsequent sale of the UK and Norwegian subsidiaries to Neptune Energy will occur once the remaining conditions precedent to the transaction are fulfilled, which is expected during 2020. Energean is working with Edison E&P to fulfil these conditions precedent as soon as possible.
  • The Energean Power FPSO hull for the Karish gas project is expected to sailaway from China to Singapore in the coming weeks, and from Singapore to Israel around YE 2020.
  • Energean expects to issue an updated CPR for the successfully appraised Karish North discovery, around end 1Q 2020. An updated Field Development Plan (“FDP”) will be submitted to the Israeli government in 2Q 2020.
  • 2020 pro forma group production (including the assets to be acquired from Edison E&P) is expected to be between 42.5 – 50.0 kboe/d. Production in the first two months of 2020 averaged 52.4 kboe/d.
  • 2020 pro forma consolidated group capital expenditure (including the assets to be acquired from Edison E&P) of $840 million, an adjustment to the net consideration, the quantum of which is being agreed, on previous guidance following actions taken by management in the last two weeks. $580 million will be spent in Israel and $140 million is fully discretionary.
  • Decisions on FID at Katakolo (Greece) and Drill or Drop on both Ioannina (Greece) and Montenegro; outstanding financial commitment across these licences of $1 million.
  • Strategic review of the Prinos Area assets progressed; results expected in 2020. Capital expenditure on the assets, including Epsilon, will be minimised whilst the review is concluded. 

Operational Review 

Business Resilience and Current Response to the Macro Environment

Energean notes the recent fall in global oil prices and highlights its resilience to fluctuations in the global commodity prices. In addition, Energean has not currently suffered any delays due to the Coronavirus.

Defensive Reserve and Production Mix

  • 70% of Energean’s 2P reserve and 2C resource base will be gas once the Edison E&P transaction completes.
  • Once the Edison E&P transaction completes, around 70% of 2020 – 2025 expected production and 60% of Energean’s 2P and 2C reserve and resource base is gas that will be sold under Gas Sale & Purchase Agreements (“GSPAs”) that are largely insulated from fluctuations in the Brent price:
    • Israel gas is expected to account for 34% of 2020 – 2025 expected production and 49% of the reserve and resource base. Israel gas is sold subject to long-term GSPAs with some of the largest domestic independent power plant and industrial customers. All GSPAs have floor pricing and take-or-pay provisions, with no price no re-openers. One contract that has a limited amount of Brent exposure, representing less than 2% of current contracted gas sales.
    • Egypt gas[3] is expected to account for 37% of 2020 – 2025 expected production and 16% of the reserve and resource base. This gas is being sold to EGPC under the concession agreement. In Abu Qir, at prices of between $40 and $72 Brent, the gas price is $3.50 / mmBTU ($3.71/mcf). At $35/bbl, the gas price is $3.16 / mmBTU ($3.35/mcf). In NEA, the gas price has been agreed at a $4.60/mmBTU ($4.77/mcf). At prices between $40 and $25, the gas price gradually reduces to the floor price of $4.45/mmBTU.

Well-Funded for Current Activities and Working Capital

  • The Group retains significant liquidity and at 31 December 2019, Energean had cash of $354 million and undrawn facilities of $480 million, excluding the undrawn $600 million acquisition bridge facility. At 28 February 2020 (and after reflecting the project finance facility increase effected on 16 March 2020), Energean had undrawn facilities of $620 million, excluding the acquisition bridge facility.

Israel Project Finance Facility

  • In Israel, cash and undrawn facilities were US$555 million. On 16 March 2019, the project finance was increased to $1.45 billion, providing an additional $175 million of liquidity for the Karish project and future appraisal activity in Israel. The project finance facility aids the defensive nature of Energean’s funding position and is largely unaffected by volatility in the oil price because:
    • It is non-recourse to the parent;
    • There are no redeterminations for the duration of its tenor;
    • Interest payments and other project costs are covered by the sizing of the facility; and
    • Due to the nature of the GSPAs underpinning the Karish and Tanin projects’ revenues, fluctuations in the oil price do not materially affect the cashflow covenants in the facility.
  • Energean’s Karish development is being executed largely through a lump-sum, turnkey EPCIC contract with TechnipFMC, which helps to protect the Company against capital expenditure overruns.
  • Liquidated damages payable by the Company resulting from any potential delay to the project are broadly back-to-back with any liquidated damages payable to gas buyers that may arise from late delivery of first gas. This limits Energean’s commercial exposure to any future delay. 

Funding position ex-Israel

  • Energean’s business excluding Israel had cash and undrawn facilities of $279 million at 31 December 2019.

Flexibility over capital investment programme

  • The Prinos Basin and Katakolo assets are fully-owned and operated, providing absolute flexibility over discretionary capital expenditure.
  • Energean’s exploration assets have minimal outstanding firm commitments, again giving Energean flexibility over capital expenditure.
  • Energean’s 2020 capital expenditure guidance benefits from strong funding and its discretionary nature:
    • 2020 pro forma consolidated group (including the proposed acquisition of Edison E&P) capital expenditure has been reduced to $840 million, from $995 million. The majority of this decrease is due to i) deferral of Cassiopea[4] expenditure; ii) deferral of Epsilon expenditure; and iii) deferral of the $35 million Zeus exploration well; results from the Karish North CPR are expected to be sufficient to ensure that Energean has enough gas to be able to participate in upcoming GSPA opportunities in Israel. This has allowed Energean to defer investment and conserve capital without impacting potential cash flow-driven returns for its shareholders.
    • $580 million relates to Karish development and is funded by the project finance facility.
    • A further $140 million is fully discretionary for 2020, principally relating to capital expenditure in Egypt and various projects in Italy. 


Karish-Tanin development project

Energean is on track to deliver first gas from its Karish project in 1H 2021. As of 31 December 2019, physical progress on the project was approximately 72% complete, the drilling of the three Karish Main development wells had been completed and significant progress had been made on the hull and topsides of the Energean Power FPSO. The FPSO Hull is expected to sailaway from China to Singapore in the coming weeks, signalling delivery of a key intermediate milestone towards delivery of first gas in 1H 2021. 

FPSO progress and key milestones

FPSO keel laying took place successfully at the COSCO Yard, Zhoushan, China, in April 2019 and in October 2019 the hull was undocked and floated out from COSCO Shipyard’s dry dock.

To date, in 2020, despite Coronavirus, the workforce in the COSCO yard has been maintained above 550 people. The FPSO Hull sailaway is expected in the coming weeks and it is due to arrive in the Admiralty Yard in Singapore shortly thereafter. Good progress has been made on construction of the topsides in Singapore, and Energean is working with TechnipFMC to mitigate the impact of the deferred sailaway from China on Practical Completion of the project and is on schedule to deliver first gas in 1H 2021. 

Gas sales and purchase agreements

During 2019, Energean agreed an additional 0.8 Bcm/yr of new and increased contracted and unconditional (“firm”) GSPAs and 0.4 Bcm/yr of contracted and conditional (“contingent”) GSPAs with gas buyers. In early 2020, a further contingent GSPA for up to 0.2 Bcm/yr was signed.

Total contracted gas sales are now as follows:

Contracted and Unconditional GSPAs

  • c.5 Bcm/yr (484 mmcfd)

Contracted and Conditional GSPAs

  • IPM Beer Tuvia: 0.4 Bcm/yr (39 mmcfd) of sales post-2024. Energean may supply additional gas pre-2024 at the option of both counterparties. The IPM contract is conditional, inter alia, on Energean certifying additional 2P reserve volumes and will be converted to firm GSPAs immediately on issuance of the Karish North CPR shortly.
  • New Contract: Up to 0.2 Bcm/yr (19 mmfcd) of sales, under which supply ramps up between 2022 and 2025. The new contract is also conditional, inter alia, on Energean certifying additional 2P reserve volumes. Energean expects the contract to be converted into firm upon publication of the Karish North CPR shortly.
  • Or Contract: 0.7 Bcm/yr (68 mmcfd) of sales to Or Power, which depends on Or Power succeeding in its application to receive a new licence from the Electricity Authority to construct a new power generation plant in Israel and successfully completing this project.

In the medium term, Energean aims to secure both the resource and offtake for the remaining spare capacity in its 8 bcma (775mmcfd) capacity FPSO, whilst bearing in mind the need for capital conservation in the current market environment. 

All GSPAs contain take-or-pay and floor pricing provisions, which reduce the risks associated with Energean’s cash flow generation profile and limit Energean’s exposure to global commodity price fluctuations. 

Energean is also evaluating gas export monetisation options, including the markets of southern Europe. As part of this strategy, the Company signed a Letter of Intent (“LOI”) in January 2020 with the Public Gas Corporation of Greece for the potential sale and purchase of 2 Bcm/yr of natural gas from Energean’s fields in Israel through the proposed East Med Pipeline. At this stage, there is no commitment to supply this gas and Energean views the LOI as a longer-term option for monetisation of its gas resources. 

2019 Drilling Campaign

During 2019, Energean drilled the KM-01, KM-02, KM-03 development wells and the Karish North exploration well and sidetrack. Completions and installation of the Christmas Trees on those three development wells was the focus of operations during 1Q 2020; clean-up of two wells is complete and one is ongoing, following which the wells will be ready for integration with the subsea infrastructure and hook up to the FPSO.

The three development wells are expected to deliver 5.0 bcm/yr (484 MMscfd) of firm contracted gas into the Israeli domestic market commencing in 1H 2021. During 2020, successful results were achieved from production measurement performed during clean-up of the KM-02 and KM-01 development wells. Both wells flowed at a maximum rate of 120 million standard cubic feet per day (MMscf/d) of natural gas, limited only by the capacity of the surface equipment. Performance modelling confirms that each well will be capable of delivering at the 300 MMscf/d design capacity when connected to the FPSO. Clean-up of the third development well, KM-03 has commenced and the results of production measurement, which are expected to be similar, will be announced to the market in due course. Energean is confident that the three development wells can produce at combined rates of 800 mmscf/d, which is sufficient to fill the capacity of the FPSO. 

The Karish North field was discovered in April 2019, with appraisal confirming initial best estimate recoverable resources of 0.9 Tcf (25 bcm) of gas plus 34 MMbbl of light oil/condensate. An independent CPR is being prepared and results will be communicated to the market shortly. On publication of this CPR, 0.6 bcm/yr of contingent GSPAs are expected to be immediately converted to firm GSPAs. The company is preparing a field development plan, envisaging a tie-back to the Energean Power FPSO. A final investment decision on that project, which is estimated to cost circa $125 million, is anticipated during 2020, with first gas during 2022. 

Exploration Programme

Energean has decided to defer its exploration activity on Block 12. Results from the Karish North CPR are expected to be sufficient to ensure that Energean has sufficient gas resources  to be able to participate in upcoming GSPA opportunities in Israel. This has allowed Energean to defer investment and conserve capital without impacting potential cash flow-driven returns for its shareholders.

The Zeus and Athena prospects remain very attractive and Energean intends to re-visit its investment decision in due course. 


Energean also added to its Israeli acreage in 2019. The Company, as part of a joint venture with Israel Opportunity, was awarded four new licences – 55, 56, 61 and 62 – in Zone D of the Israeli EEZ. The licences are situated approximately 45 kilometres off the coast of Tel Aviv and represent a strong potential source of upside in Energean’s Israel portfolio. 



At the end of 2019, Energean decided to place its Prinos area assets under strategic review, the results of which will be communicated to the market once complete.  Working interest production from Greece averaged 3,312 boepd during 2019, however, investment in Prinos, Prinos North and Epsilon will continue to be limited whilst this strategic review is concluded and 2020 production is, therefore, expected to be in the range of 2,000 to 2,500 boepd, assuming no contribution from Epsilon. Output from Prinos and Prinos North is to be maintained through rig-less activities requiring limited expenditure.

Due to higher-return capital allocation priorities, Energean no longer carries a medium-term production target for the Prinos area asset; future production will be a function of the level of investment in the assets. 

Development – 2019 Overview

During 2019, all three Epsilon Lamda platform development wells were drilled successfully. As previously announced, additional pay was encountered in the deeper and dolomitic zones of the Epsilon reservoir. This resulted in an NSAI-audited reserve and contingent resource increase of 26 MMboe, to 44 mmboe.

At Katakolo, award of the EIA is expected in 2Q 2020 with potential Final Investment Decision thereafter. NSAI-audited Katakolo reserves are 14 MMboe, a 36% increase on 2018.

The proposed underground gas storage project in South Kavala saw a positive development in 4Q 2019 when an amendment to the law was passed on 10 December 2019, making it possible for the regulating energy authority to regulate the tariff. This paves the way for a tender for the project, which is expected in 2020. On 11 March 2020, the Greek Energy and Finance Ministries signed a decision to allow the country’s state-asset sales fund to proceed with an international tender to construct, maintain and operate an underground gas storage facility at the South Kavala field, with the first step a cost-benefit study.  The right to exploit the facility will be 50 years. 


In Ioannina, interpretation of the newly acquired seismic lines is ongoing and a drill-or-drop decision will be taken in 1H 2020. The quality of acquired seismic was a major improvement when compared to historic vintages and the lines have identified two prospective trends with multiple analogue prospects. Further, the new 2D seismic has verified the existing geological model, de-risking existing prospectivity. The seismic lines were acquired with minimal environmental impact and Energean and the operator, Repsol, have agreed to plant trees in areas away from the 2D seismic lines. The outstanding net financial commitment on the Ioannina block is less than $0.5 million.

In Aitoloakarnania, the operator, Repsol, is carrying out the necessary environmental studies in preparation for the 2D seismic acquisition campaign, which is expected to commence in 2Q 2020, subject to permitting. The outstanding net financial commitment on the Aitoloakarnania is less than $3 million.

In February 2020, Energean signed an agreement for the acquisition of Total’s 50% stake in, and operatorship of, Block 2, offshore Western Greece, providing further material exploration opportunities in its core area of the Eastern Mediterranean with limited financial exposure. Energean’s net remaining expenditure (at 50% Working Interest and post including consideration) towards satisfaction of the minimum work obligation, which includes 1800 kilometres of 2D seismic acquisition and processing, is approximately €0.5 million. Energean believes that this is a highly attractive transaction in the context of the early stage prospectivity identified on the block.

Work to date on the licence has identified that Block 2 contains part of a large four-way closure at the Top Jurassic Apulia platform. The prospect is believed to be an analogue to the Vega field, offshore Italy, which Edison E&P operates with a 60% Working Interest. The structure is covered by sparse 2D seismic and could be de-risked through the seismic acquisition programme to be executed as part of the minimum work obligation. 


In February 2019, Energean commissioned PGS for the acquisition of a new 3D seismic survey over Blocks 26 and 30. The PGS Ramform Titan, one of the best seismic acquisition vessels in the world, deployed 14 geo-streamers, 6.5 kilometres for each streamer length, using a triple source array to cover a total area of 338 square kilometres. The 3D seismic survey substantially fulfils the licence commitment for both blocks 26 & 30 with a net outstanding financial commitment of less than $0.5 million.

Results from the seismic survey have identified a number of shallow gas prospects and deeper carbonate prospects have been identified through interpretation of the newly acquired seismic data. Energean is awaiting final data in order to confirm the primary prospect. The Ministry of Economy in Montenegro confirmed that Energean will receive an extension to the first exploration phase to 15 March 2021, with a drill-or-drop decision due by year end 2020. 

Energean Reserves and Resources

Energean increased 2P reserves and 2C resources to 558 MMboe, up 39% year-on-year, before any contribution from the Edison E&P acquisition. Energean’s reserves and resources benefitted from two discoveries during 2019, the Karish North discovery in Israel, which added 190 mmboe, and the Epsilon Deeper and Dolomitic Zones, which added 25 mmboe. 













Commercial Reserves










1 January 2019





















Transfer from contingent resources








31 December 2019










Contingent Resources

1 January 2019












Revisions and Discoveries










Disposals and relinquishments

Transfer to commercial reserves

31 December 2019










Total Commercial Reserves & Contingent Resources

1 January 2019










31 December 2019










Edison E&P acquisition

In July 2019, Energean agreed to acquire Edison E&P for $750 million plus $100 million of contingent consideration. Energean raised $265 million of new equity and $600 million in bridge financing from leading international banks to fund the deal. Energean is in the process of refinancing the acquisition bridge facility using an RBL, which is expected to be sized at up to $525 million, plus a $250 million bridge to disposal for the UK and Norway assets.

Energean is working actively to close the acquisition as soon as possible, with approval from Italian regulatory authorities anticipated soon. Formal approval from Egyptian regulatory authorities is expected soon after shareholder approval at the EGM. As announced on 23 December 2019, the transaction will now exclude the Algerian assets. Carve out of the Algerian assets from the transaction perimeter has been agreed in principle at an effective price of $155 million, based on an effective transaction date of 1 January 2019; the carve out remains subject to a signed, amended SPA.

In October 2019, Energean agreed to sell Edison E&P’s UK North Sea and Norway assets to Neptune Energy for $250 million (plus up to $30 million contingent consideration). The deal is aligned with Energean’s strategy of optimising its portfolio and the stated goal of disposing of non-core assets. The onward sale is expected to complete as soon as is practicable following the close of the acquisition of Edison E&P. 

Edison E&P financials

During 2019, Edison E&P delivered the following financial results. These results have been prepared on the basis of Edison E&P’s accounting policies and are subject to adjustments when included in Energean’s upcoming Circular and Prospectus.

Edison E&P financials are presented on a pro forma basis and are unaudited.


Edison E&P


2019 – $ million

Edison E&P exclusive UK North Sea, Norway & Algeria

2019 – $ million




Operating Costs (including G&A)






Operating Cash Flow



Development and Production Capital Expenditure



Exploration Expenditure



At 31 December 2019, net receivables (after provision for bad and doubtful debts) in Egypt were $222 million, of which $126 million were classified as overdue (31 December 2018: $240 million net receivables, of which $106 million were classified as overdue). A further payment for $55 million was received in January 2020.

Edison E&P production

Average Working Interest production from the Edison E&P portfolio during 2019 was 64.2 kboed. Average 2019 production from the assets to be retained by Energean was 56.4 kboe/d and, for this set of assets, pro forma 2020 production guidance is a range of 42.5 – 50.0 kboe/d. Average Working Interest production in the first two months of 2020 is estimated to have been 52.4 kboe/d.

During 2020, Energean expects Egyptian production to average 32 – 37 kboe/d, Italy to average 8 – 10 kboe/d and Croatia to average 0.5 kboe/d. After an initial reduction during 2020 due to the natural depletion of the fields, production is expected to rise again in the medium term mainly due to new developments; Cassiopea in Italy, Yazzi/NEA/NI in Egypt and, potentially, Irena in Croatia. Production is also expected to be enhanced through the drilling of additional wells at Abu Qir; four locations have been identified for near-to-medium term drilling that, if sanctioned (noting that these wells represent discretionary capital expenditure), would target a combined 30 mmboe of reserves for a total budget of c.$90 million.  


2020 Pro Forma Production Guidance

  • kboe/d

2019 Average Working Interest Production – kboe/d[5]


8 – 10



32 – 37





Edison E&P Assets to be Acquired

42.5 – 50.0











Edison E&P reserves

As at 30 June 2018, the Edison E&P assets to be acquired had 2P reserves of 239 mmboe of working interest 2P reserves according to an independent CPR prepared by DeGolyer and MacNaughton. The reserves report is currently being updated to reflect an effective date of 31 December 2019 and will be published in the Shareholder Circular, to be sent to shareholders in connection with the acquisition. The new CPR is expected to reflect a corresponding decrease in reserves as a result of 18 months of production. Reserve replacement has been limited over the period due to limited investment associated with the disposals process and change of control. 

Edison E&P Development

Italy  – Argo Cassiopea

In December 2019, ENI and Edison E&P received the renewal of the Italian EIA approval on Cassiopea (ENI 60% Op., Edison E&P 40%). The development consists of four subsea wells (two new wells and two re-completed wells) and uses a subsea production system with a 60 kilometre pipeline to shore, where gas compression and treatment will be performed inside the existing Gela refinery. The drilling campaign is expected to be undertaken between 1Q and 3Q 2022 and the subsea installation campaign 2Q to 4Q 2022, with first gas expected in early 2023. The development is expected to add an estimated 60 mmscf/d (10 kboe/d) of net production.

Egypt – NEA/NI

The NEA and NI assets are satellite fields of the Abu Qir gas-condensate asset. Edison E&P has a 100% working interest in both accumulations. The development concept includes four subsea wells, to be drilled in water depths ranging from 30 to 85 metres, and tied back to the North Abu Qir III platform. A final investment decision is expected in mid-2020 with first gas expected 18 months later. The development will target an estimated 52 million barrels of working interest 2P reserves at a total cost of approximately $200 million.  

The development will add limited operating costs to the Abu Qir complex, resulting in attractive netbacks.

Expected peak production from the NEA / NI development is an incremental 90 mmscf/d plus 1 kbopd of condensate.


Edison E&P expects to spud the Irena-2 appraisal well in 2Q 2020. It will target the same gas-bearing horizon that was successful in Irena-1 and, in the event of a success, the well will be suspended for future production.

Edison E&P Exploration

In Egypt, the Ameeq well, which is being drilled on the North Thekah Offshore Block, spudded on 18 January 2020.

In Italy, an additional two firm exploration wells will be drilled into the Gemini and Centauro prospects, which are adjacent to the Cassiopea field, in 2022. These wells will target a combined c.9.7 mmboe of gross prospective resources and each has a Geological Chance of Success of 90%. If successful, the wells would be tied back to the Cassiopea subsea system. 

2020 Guidance – pro forma for the combined business, includes Edison E&P

The production and financial data below reflects the Edison E&P forecasts for the full year. Edison E&P will be consolidated into Energean’s financial statements from the date of transaction completion, which is expected later in 2020. Energean will benefit from net cash flows between the locked-box date of 1 January 2019 and the date of transaction completion through an adjustment to the variable consideration.




Jan & Feb 2020 Performance






     Egypt (kboe/d)

32 – 37



     Italy (kboe/d)

8 – 10



     Greece (kboe/d)

2 – 2.5



     Croatia (kboe/d)




Total Pro Forma Production (kboe/d)

42.5 – 50.0









Discretionary Amount


Operating Costs & G&A ($ million)

225 – 250





Development and Production Capital Expenditure




  • Israel ($ million)


Funded by project finance facility

  • Egypt ($ million)



70 million NEA/NI; $20 million Abu Qir facilities; $8 million Abu Qir wells

  • Italy ($ million)



All discretionary apart from $25 million investment in Cassiopea and $10 million in Leoni

  • Greece ($ million)


100% owned and operated, Epsilon investment deferred

  • Croatia ($ million)


Appraisal well committed, capacity to delay exists

Total Pro Forma Development & Production Capital Expenditure ($ million)








Exploration Capital Expenditure (Firm)




  • Israel ($ million)



  • Egypt ($ million)



  • Italy ($ million)


  • Greece ($ million)



  • Croatia ($ million)


  • Other ($ million)


Total Pro Forma Exploration Capital Expenditure ($ million)



Financial review

Focused on maintaining strong financial discipline

Revenue, production and commodity prices

Working interest crude production from Greece averaged 3,312 bopd, a decrease of 18% for the period (2018: 4,053 bopd). The decrease in production was due to the decision to put the Prinos Area assets under strategic review following the review of capital allocation that was initiated earlier in the year. As a result, investment in Prinos and Prinos North was limited to $14.0 million during the period, while this process was being undertaken.

Prinos crude is sold at a $6.6/bbl. discount to Urals Med blend, adjusted for final cargo API. In 2019 the average sales price achieved was $58/bbl.

Depreciation, impairments and write-offs  

Depreciation charges before impairment on production and development assets increased by 15% to $39.1 million (2018: $34.3 million) due to increased capital expenditure invested in Greece during 2018, along with finance lease assets’ depreciation recorded for the first time in 2019 (IFRS 16 adoption). The Group recognised a gross impairment charge of $71.1 million in 2019 (2018: $nil). In the period, indicators of impairment were noted for the Prinos CGU, being a reduction in both short-term (Dated Brent forward curve) and long-term price assumptions and a change in the Group’s Prinos field production forecast, which have resulted in an impairment of $71.1 million in the carrying value of the Prinos CGU. 

Selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses 

Energean incurred SG&A costs of $13.7 million in 2019. This represents a 13% increase on the previous year (2018: $12.1 million) and is due to the additional staffing and administrative costs associated with the continued growth of the Group’s portfolio and the efforts associated with developing the Karish project.

For the full year 2020 Energean expects stand-alone SG&A costs to be $15.0 million. Edison E&P adds an estimated additional $30 million on a pro forma basis.

Other expenses

Other expenses of $21.6 million (2018: $1.1 million) consist predominantly of the direct costs incurred in 2019 relating to the proposed acquisition of Edison’s E&P business.

Finance costs

Financing costs before capitalisation for the period were $48.9 million (2018: $22.7 million). Included within this balance is $34.4 million of interest (2018: $12.2 million), of which $7.0 million relates to interest incurred on the RBL facility and $27.4 million on the Karish project finance facility. In addition, there was $7.2 million (2018: $5.7 million) of interest expenses relating to long term payables representing future payments to the previous Karish/Tanin licence holders. This was offset by capitalised borrowing costs of $39.9 million (2018: $9.3 million). The remainder of the total finance costs expensed relate primarily to finance and arrangement fees and other finance costs and bank charges. Total finance cost expensed amounted to $9.0 million (2018: $13.5 million).

Crude oil hedging

Energean had no hedges during the period and has no outstanding crude oil hedges at year-end. Energean will keep its hedging position under review.


Energean recorded tax income of $20.5 million in 2019 (2018: $15.5 million tax income) primarily associated with the deferred tax impact of the impairment losses associated with the Prinos assets.

Operating cash flow

Cash from operations before movements in working capital was $18.5 million (2018: $53.9 million). After adjusting for working capital movements, cash from operations was $36.3 million, a 42.1% decrease on the comparable period (2018: $62.7 million). The decrease is driven by reduced production and revenue in the period and due to $8.1 million of direct transaction costs for the proposed acquisition of Edison E&P in 2019, which have been recorded under operating activities.

Financial results summary




Av. Daily working interest production (kboed)



Sales revenue ($M)



Realised oil price ($/boe)



Cost of oil production ($m)



Cost of production per barrel ($/boe)



Administrative & selling expenses ($m)



Adjusted EBITDAX ($m)



Cash flow from operating activities ($m)



Capital expenditure ($m)



Cash capital expenditure ($m)



Net debt (cash) ($m)



Net debt/equity (%)



Non-IFRS measures

The Group uses certain measures of performance that are not specifically defined under IFRS or other generally accepted accounting principles. These non-IFRS measures include adjusted EBITDAX, cost of oil production, capital expenditure, cash capex, net debt and gearing ratio and are explained below.

Cost of oil production

Cost of oil production is a non-IFRS measure that is used by the Group as a useful indicator of the Group’s underlying cash costs to produce hydrocarbons. The Group uses the measure to compare operational performance period to period, to monitor costs and to assess operational efficiency. Cost of oil production is calculated as cost of sales, adjusted for depreciation and hydrocarbon inventory movements. 







Cost of sales







          Change in inventory



Cost of oil production



Total production for the period (boe)



Cost of oil production per boe ($)




Prinos production fell by 18% in 2019. This has resulted in a 22% increase in per barrel production costs, from $17.6/bbl. in 2018 to $21.5/bbl.

Adjusted EBITDAX 

Adjusted EBITDAX is a non-IFRS measure used by the Group to measure business performance. It is calculated as profit or loss for the period, adjusted for discontinued operations, taxation, depreciation and amortisation, other income and expenses (including the impact of derivative financial instruments and foreign exchange), net finance costs and exploration costs. The Group presents adjusted EBITDAX as it is used in assessing the Group’s growth and operational efficiencies, because it illustrates the underlying performance of the Group’s business by excluding items not considered by management to reflect the underlying operations of the Group. 







Adjusted EBITDAX



Reconciliation to profit/(loss):



Depreciation and amortisation



Exploration and evaluation expense



Impairment loss on property, plant and equipment


Other expenses



Other income



Finance expenses



Finance income



Gain on derivative


Net foreign exchange



Taxation income/(expense)



(Loss)/income for the year



Capital expenditure

Capital expenditure is a useful indicator of the Group’s organic expenditure on oil and gas assets and exploration and appraisal assets incurred during a period. Capital expenditure is defined as additions to property, plant and equipment and intangible exploration and evaluation assets excluding decommissioning, capitalised depreciation, less capitalised borrowing cost.







Additions to property, plant and equipment



Additions to intangible exploration and evaluation assets





Capitalised borrowing costs



Capitalised depreciation



Change in decommissioning provision






Capital expenditure was $685.1 million, of which $611.9 million was invested in Israel, $68.4 million in Greece (Epsilon – $45.2 million) and $4.9 million in Montenegro.

Cash capital expenditure in 2019 was $954.5 million (FY 2018: $293.6 million).




Cash Capital Expenditure



Payment for purchase of property, plant and equipment



Payment for purchase of intangible assets






Net cash/debt and gearing ratio

Net debt is defined as the Group’s total borrowings less cash and cash equivalents. Management believes that net debt is a useful indicator of the Group’s indebtedness, financial flexibility and capital structure because it indicates the level of borrowings after taking account of any cash and cash equivalents that could be used to reduce borrowings. The Group defines capital as total equity and calculates the gearing ratio as net debt divided by capital.

Net debt reconciliation           











Net Debt

Current borrowings


Non-current borrowings



Total borrowings 



Less: Cash and cash equivalents and bank deposits



Net (Funds)/Debt (1)



Total equity  (2)



Gearing Ratio (1)/(2):



In July 2019, Energean raised $265.1 million through the issuance of new ordinary shares on LSE and TASE. Net of cash transaction costs of $8.2 million this contributed $256.9 million of cash to the Group in 2019 .

Edison E&P acquisition

In July 2019, Energean agreed to acquire Edison Exploration & Production S.p.A. from Edison S.p.A. for $750 million, to be adjusted for working capital, with additional contingent consideration of $100 million payable following first gas from the Cassiopea development (expected early 2023), offshore Italy.

Energean also agreed to sell the UK and Norwegian subsidiaries of Edison E&P to Neptune Energy for $250 million, to be adjusted for working capital, with additional contingent consideration of up to $30 million. The sale is contingent on Energean completing upon its acquisition of Edison E&P and is expected to close as soon as is reasonably practicable after close of the Edison E&P transaction.

On 23 December 2019, Energean announced that Edison S.p.A. had received a letter from the Algerian authorities, which invited Edison to discuss the transaction with Sonatrach. Energean and Edison E&P subsequently agreed to exclude the asset from the transaction perimeter.  Carve out of the Algerian assets from the transaction perimeter has now been agreed in principle at an effective price of $155 million, based on an effective transaction date of 1 January 2019; the carve out remains subject to a signed, amended SPA.

Financing of the acquisition

The initial consideration was supported by a $600 million committed bridge loan facility underwritten by ING and Morgan Stanley, and S$265 million of equity financing. The total debt and equity capital raised was sized to cover both the initial consideration and working capital requirements of the enlarged group.

The bridge loan facility is expected to be replaced in 2020 using a reserve based facility and a bridge facility for the onward sale of the UK and Norwegian assets to Neptune Energy. The $100 million of contingent consideration is expected to be funded by the combined free cash flow of the Enlarged Group as well as any incremental reserve based facility capacity.


In July 2019, Energean also launched a placing with institutional investors of new ordinary shares of 1 pence each in the capital of Energean to raise up to £211 million (approximately $265 million) before expenses.

Proposed Edison E&P acquisition – 2019 financial results

During 2019, Edison E&P delivered the following financial results. These results have been prepared on the basis of Edison E&P’s accounting policies and are subject to adjustments when included in Energean’s upcoming Circular and Prospectus.


Edison E&P

Edison E&P exclusive of the UK, Norway and Algeria assets


2019 – $m

2019 – $m




Operating costs






Operating cash flow



Development and production capital expenditure



Exploration expenditure



Liquidity risk management and going concern

The Group carefully manages its risk to a shortage of funds by monitoring its funding position and its liquidity risk. Cash forecast are regularly produced and sensitivities run for different scenarios including change in Brent prices, different production rates and future capital expenditure investment profile.

Short-term cash forecasts have been stress-tested in light of the significant oil price reduction seen in early March 2020, with a primary scenario using an average price of $35.0/bbl for 2020 and $42.5/bbl for 2021, and a downside sensitivity run at $30/bbl average for both 2020 and 2021.

In this scenario, the Group would also target a further rationalisation of its cost base, including cuts to discretionary capital expenditure and operating cost. As at 31 December 2019, the Group had cash and undrawn facilities of $834.2 million million. Post-period end, Energean has also successfully increased its Israel Project Finance Facility by $175million to $1.45 billion (from $1.275 billion), providing additional headroom on its Karish development.

The Group’s revised forecasts show that the Group will be able to operate within its current debt facilities and has sufficient financial headroom for the 12 months from the date of approval of the 2019 Annual Report and Accounts. In arriving at this conclusion, the Directors also had regard to the Group’s ability to raise necessary funding as and when needed. In 2019, the Group successfully raised gross proceeds of $265.1 million through a private placement on the London and Tel Aviv Stock Exchanges. The Group also raised a $600 million bridge facility to provide funds for its acquisition of Edison E&P. The Group expects to replace this with a Reserve Based Lending (“RBL”) Facility (of up to $525m, of which between $400 and $450million is expected to be available) plus a Bridge to Disposal Facility (of up to $250million) for the sale of the UK and Norway assets to Neptune Energy. The purpose of the RBL will be to fund the acquisition, refinance the Greek RBL and provide headroom over the medium term for capital expenditure within the Group (excluding Israel).   

Based on an assessment of the Group’s cash flow forecasts under various scenarios, including the identification of associated risks and mitigants, the Directors have concluded that they have a reasonable expectation that the Group will continue in operational existence for a 12 month period from the date of approval of the 2019 Annual Report and Accounts and have therefore adopted the going concern basis in preparing the Group and parent company financial statements.


Energean continues to monitor the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, accessing the advice by the World Health Organisation and Public Health England to ensure that best-practice precautions are being applied. Clear information and health precautions on how employees should protect themselves and reduce exposure to, and transmission of, a range of illnesses along with general advice has been communicated across the organization.

Coronavirus has not yet affected Energean’s operations, but in the event that the COVID-19 outbreak escalates, Energean has contingency plans in place that will be followed.

Events since 31 December 2019

Energean is exposed to macro-economic risks, including pandemic diseases that could have a material adverse effect on its operations. We continue to monitor the recent Coronavirus outbreak, which is causing global economic disruption and may impact our performance in 2020. To date, the Coronavirus has not had a material impact on Energean’s activities. However, at present, it is not possible to predict whether the outbreak will have a material adverse effect on our future earnings, cash flows and financial condition.

On 6 March 2020, OPEC and non-OPEC allies (OPEC+) met to discuss the need to cut oil supply to balance oil markets in the wake of the Coronavirus outbreak, which has had a material adverse impact on oil demand. OPEC+ failed to reach agreement and on 7 March 2020, Saudi Aramco cut its Official Selling Prices, prioritizing market share over pricing. As a result, oil prices have fallen materially, which may have a material adverse impact on the component of Energean’s future earnings that are linked to oil prices.

In January 2020, Energean reduced the size of it EBRD Reserve Based Lending Facility to $161 million.

On 16 March 2020, Energean Israel signed a $175 million increase in its project finance facility, which is now sized at $1,450 million, increasing liquidity available to the company. 

Group Income Statement



















Cost of sales






Gross profit




Administrative expenses




Selling and distribution expenses



Exploration and evaluation expenses




Impairment of property, plant and equipment





Other expenses






Other income






Operating (loss)/profit









Finance income




Finance costs




Gain on derivative



Net foreign exchange losses






(Loss)/profit before tax




Taxation income






(Loss)/profit for the year












Attributable to:


Owners of the parent



Noncontrolling interests













Basic and diluted total (loss)/earnings per share (cents per share)

















Group Statement of Comprehensive Income
















Consolidated statement of comprehensive income












(Loss)/profit for the year







Other comprehensive loss:


Items that may be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss


Cash Flow Hedge, net of tax





Exchange difference on the translation of foreign operations













Items that will not be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss


Remeasurement of defined benefit pension plan



Income taxes on items that will not be reclassified to profit or loss








Other comprehensive loss after tax







Total comprehensive (loss)/income for the year







Total comprehensive (loss)/income attributable to:


Owners of the parent



Non-controlling interests

















Group Statement of Financial Position
















Non-current assets


Property, plant and equipment




Intangible assets







Other receivables



Deferred tax asset









Current assets






Trade and other receivables




Cash and cash equivalents





Total assets









Equity attributable to owners of the parent


Share capital




Share premium




Merger reserve



Energean to acquire Total’s stake in Block 2, offshore Greece

Energean, the oil and gas producer focused on the Mediterranean, has signed an agreement for the acquisition of Total’s stake in Block 2, offshore Western Greece, providing further material exploration opportunities in its core area of the Eastern Mediterranean with limited financial exposure, the company has announced.

The deal further enhances the future growth potential of Energean’s portfolio and medium-term optionality to deliver value to all stakeholders, the company noted. 

On completion, Energean would acquire Total’s entire 50% Working Interest share and Operatorship. Energean’s net remaining expenditure towards satisfaction of the minimum work obligation, which includes 1800km of 2D seismic acquisition and processing – activity which Energean believes could significantly de-risk the prospectivity of the licence – is approximately €0.5 million. Energean believes this is a highly attractive transaction in the context of the early stage prospectivity identified on the Block.

Work to date on the licence has identified that Block 2 contains part of a large, potential target comprising of a four-way closure at the Top Jurassic Apulia platform. The prospect is thought to be an analogue to the Vega field offshore Italy, in which Edison E&P operates with a 60% working interest. The structure is covered by sparse 2D seismic which could be de-risked through the seismic programme that will be acquired as part of the minimum work programme.

The feature straddles the Greek and Italian maritime border with approximately 60% of the prospect within the Block 2 license with the remaining area part in Italian waters. Edison E&P, of which Energean expects to complete its acquisition during 1H 2020, as well as holding a 25% Working Interest in Block 2 also participates in the adjacent 84F.R-EL block offshore Italy, pending award. Post completion of the Edison E&P transaction, Energean will then own a 75% Working Interest in Block 2. Hellenic Petroleum owns the remaining 25% Working Interest.

Athens wants greater French hydrocarbon engagement

The government wants France’s Total to play a more active role in Greek offshore hydrocarbon exploration, Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis made clear during a meeting in Paris yesterday with the French group’s chief executive Patrick Pouyanné.

The potential of Greece’s hydrocarbon market, including offshore licenses south and southwest of Crete held by a Total-led consortium – it also features Exxon Mobil and Hellenic Petroleum (ELPE) – was the main focus of yesterday’s meeting.

Processing of seismic data collected from the Cretan offshore blocks has provided strong evidence of a deposit sharing similar attributes to Egypt’s Zohr gas field. However, this needs to be proved in practice. French officials have remained cautiously optimistic as they await initial drilling operations for a clearer picture.

Total’s plans for exploration within the Cypriot Exclusive Economic Zone, specifically at Block 8, for which Total shares a license with Italy’s Eni, were also discussed yesterday.

Turkish drillship Yavuz has sought to engage in illegal exploration activities in this area. French officials do not intend to intercept any Turkish moves at this stage but are expected to do so if the exploratory rights of Total and Eni are disputed once the companies decide to start exploring the area.